Shimo Sonkurai (Lower Sonkurai) 288.10 k - Thailand
Shimo Sonkurai No. 1 Camp (Lower Sonkurai) 288.10km – Thailand
Shimo Sonkurai Camp for most Australian POWs in ‘F’ Force was the end of a route march of approximately 290 kilometres which took between 17-20 days. Marching mostly at night, to avoid heat of days, the men were subjected to sprains, feet and leg injuries, even broken limbs due to falls down embankments where they lost shoes and belongings as they trekked mostly in total darkness (created by the tall trees and dense vegetation) on very poorly constructed tracks. Even boots fell apart.
Shimo Sonkurai was the No. 1 Construction Camp for ‘F’ Force which was made up of 3,666 Australians and the remaining British to make up a total of 7,000 men.
The cookhouse was 400 metres from camp, 730 metres from the main hospital and more than a kilometre from the isolation camp (cholera).
Within the next few days, 70 tents and loads of attap were delivered into the camp, and shelter from the rain and heat of the day became possible. After having spent several miserable nights in the open, the troops found the cover most welcome.
The following is from Winstanley’s Website
‘There is no doubt that the forceful leadership displayed by Majors Johnston and Hunt were the reason Lower Sonkurai Camp eventually became the most hygienic and possessed the highest morale of any “F” Force Camp. The employment of all spare fit officers on works and hygiene was a big factor in maintaining a standard of morale that was to become an important factor in the fight for life in which nearly every member of the A.I.F. was to become involved during the next few months.’
Major Bruce Hunt with his medical team worked miracles with little support from the Japanese.
Within 7 months almost half of the 7,000 POWs had died. To begin with, approximately 1/3 of ‘F’ Force were classified sick and unable to work before setting out from Singapore.
The POWs then had been ruthlessly marched north about 290 kilometres for 17-20 days into Thailand, starved, denied medicines and mercilessly worked to death.
‘F’ Force was to remain under Singapore Administration jurisdiction and not Thailand Administration. There existed a series of petty jealousies between the two Japanese groups which resulted in ‘F’ Force men being the ones to lose out mostly by the inconsistent deliveries of essential food supplies.
On the 28 July 1943 the first party departed Shimo Sonkurai to Kami (Upper) Sonkurai following the closure of the camp and evacuation of sick to Tanbaya. The party consisting of 7 officers and 295 other ranks took five hours to complete. Of the 302 men, 173 men were immediately admitted to hospital on arrival, some never left Tanbaya alive.
In addition to the four parties of about 650 men from Shimo Sonkurai to Kami Sonkurai there were approximately 310 British from Changaraya and 360 from Nikhe.
By 8 August 1943, Shimo Sonkurai totalled 1,690 men of whom 670 were British and 1,020 were Australians. Generally the British from Changaraya were in a poorer state of health than the Australians (they had suffered heavy losses from Cholera).
As the British and Australians poured into the camp they were greeted by the usual sight of roofless atap huts and less than adequate latrines. An insufficient number of Burmese had been employed to roof the huts and POWs were forced to sleep out in the open. Some sick were forced to sleep in huts where the floors were collapsing. The latrines had broken its banks and effluent was running through the camp and under the floors of the huts being used as the hospital.
Cholera Hill at Lower Sonkurai was a small collection of tents located at the northern end of the camp. Cholera reached epidemic proportions with great loss of life every day.
Those from 2/4th who died at Shimo Sonkurai include:
WX8864 GREGORY, John Edgar James of ‘F ‘Force died of cholera 1 June 1943 aged 39 years Shimo Sonkurai.
WX9073 PATERSON, William James died 25 July 1943 cerebral malaria and colitis aged 27 years, Shimo Sonkurai.
Below: Paterson and on right McIntosh.
WX9849 MCINTOSH, Archibald James Livie died 10 November 1943 beri beri and dysentery aged 23 years at Shimo Sonkurai.